نوشته شاخص

پیدا کردن یک تیم حرفه‌ای برای راه‌اندازی رستوران

رستوران ساز از ابتدای شکل‌گیری ایده برای سرمایه‌گذاری و راه اندازی رستوران تا زمان به ثمر نشتن پروژه، در کنار شما می‌ماند.

تیم حرفه ای راه اندازی رستوران ایرانی

اولین چیزی که برای راه‌اندازی یک رستوران دلربای ایرانی نیاز دارید، پیدا کردن تیم حرفه‌ای است. این تیم باید اصول طراحی، تهیه‌ی بیزنس پلن و دکوراتیو داخلی رستوران مسلط باشد. این دقیقاً همان چیزی که می‌توانید در تیم ما جستجو کنید. برای راه‌اندازی رستوران باید بدانید که رستوران به چه تجهیزات، میزان سرمایه، زمان برای ساخت و راه‌اندازی نیاز دارد.

شما قبل از راه‌اندازی رستوران ایرانی به اطلاعات دقیقی در مورد زمان راه‌اندازی و میزان سرمایه نیاز دارید. همچنین باید بدانید که نمای داخلی و نمای بیرونی رستوران شما در پایان کار چگونه خواهد بود. در تیم ما شما می‌توانید همزمان با دریافت یک بیزنس پلن، از رستوران خود یک نمای ۳D دریافت کنید. مطمئناً با چنین قابلیتی می‌توانید به بهترین شکل برای آینده‌ی کسب و کار خود برنامه‌ریزی کنید.

همچنین برای تأمین هزینه‌های مورد نیاز برای رستوران ایرانی باید یک برنامه‌ی مشخص داشته باشید. در تیم ما همه‌ی فاکتورهای مهم برای راه اندازی بهترین رستوران در نظر گرفته می‌شود. سپس با مشارکت و مشورت شما، نوع تجهیزات برای راه‌اندازی رستوران مشخص می‌شود. در نهایت هزینه‌های تجهیزات، برآورد می‌شود که با تصمیم‌گیری بهتر می‌توانید سرمایه‌ی مورد نیاز را تأمین کنید.

نوشته شاخص

همه چیز در مورد راه اندازی رستوران

رستوران ساز از ابتدای شکل‌گیری ایده برای سرمایه‌گذاری و راه اندازی رستوران تا زمان به ثمر نشتن پروژه، در کنار شما می‌ماند.

همه چیز در مورد راه اندازی رستوران

راه اندازی رستوران مانند هر کسب و کار دیگری به تخصص و مهارت کافی نیاز دارد. اگر فرد ایده‌پردازی هستید و یا قصد دارید سرمایه‌ی خود را در جایی ببرید که به سود بالا برسد، راه‌اندازی رستوران گزینه‌ی مناسبی برای شماست. البته به شرط اینکه نکات مهم در این پروژه را به خوبی رعایت کنید. قبل از هر چیز برآورد هزینه ساخت رستوران اهمیت دارد. از سوی دیگر انتخاب تیم مؤسس هم در این رابطه مؤثر هستند.

انتخاب تیم موسس رستوران

انتخاب تیم مؤسس رستوران

اکنون که شرکت های راه اندازی رستوران زیاده شده‌اند و در هر شهری می‌توانید یکی از این تیم‌ها را پیدا کنید، انتخاب یک تیم حرفه‌ای کار سختی نیست. بهترین شرکت‌های مؤسس رستوران باید دارای تیم متخصص، مجرب و دارای نمونه کارهای موفق باشند. قبل از اینکه بخواهید با آن‌ها قرارداد همکاری امضا کنید، ابتدا باید از کارهای قبلی و نحوه‌ی عملکردشان مطمئن شوید.

در بین اعضاء تیم باید هماهنگی باشد. برای مثال یک طراح دکوراسیون و تهیه‌کننده‌ی تجهیزات رستوران باید با هم هماهنگ عمل کنند. شما تنها نقش تأمین‌کننده‌ی سرمایه را بر عهده دارید. این تیم مؤسس است که سرمایه‌ی شما را به اجرا می‌گذارد. از سوی دیگر شما را در جریان تمامی امور قرار می‌دهد.

 

خلاقیت در راه اندازی رستوران

 

339 cases now linked to U.S.-grown onion Salmonella outbreak

TORONTO — More than 300 confirmed cases of illness have been reported in Canada in connection with a Salmonella outbreak involving U.S.-grown onions.

In their latest update released Friday, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) states that 339 cases have been confirmed in the country. One hundred of those cases were confirmed in the past week.

PHAC warned people to not eat or sell any onions from Thomson International Inc. of Bakersfield, Calif., adding that “if you are not sure where a red, yellow, white, or sweet yellow onion was grown, do not eat it.”

The public health authority said there is no evidence to suggest that onions grown in Canada are connected to the outbreak.

PHAC says that people started getting sick between mid-June and late July. To date, 48 people have been hospitalized.

Those who became sick reported eating red onions at home, at restaurants and in residential care facilities.

Here’s a look at where cases have been reported:

  • British Columbia (78)
  • Alberta (208)
  • Saskatchewan (19)
  • Manitoba (19)
  • Ontario (8)
  • Quebec (6)
  • Prince Edward Island (1)

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency has issued a food recall warning for products that came into the country.

People who become ill with Salmonella often develop a fever, chills, diarrhea, cramps and nausea.

Anyone who believes they may have been exposed to Salmonella should contact their health-care provider.

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Coronavirus LIVE updates: Victoria takes stock after 110 COVID-19 deaths this week, NSW seeks lower cases, Australian death toll at 375

We have made our live blog of the coronavirus pandemic free for all readers. Please consider supporting our journalism with a subscription.

Latest updates

Four Queenslanders have been fined and ordered into hotel quarantine after reportedly attempting to sail a yacht from Byron Bay to Cairns.

Maritime Safety Queensland on Friday intercepted the yacht and issued those on board with fines for failing to obey a health officer’s direction and ordered them into hotel quarantine at their own expense. Their yacht is now at anchor.

In a statement, MSQ said it was operating a 24/7 operation on Queensland’s interstate maritime borders, with skippers contacted by phone or radio for the number and identity of people on board.

Skippers are required to provide their border declaration passes and proof of identification before entering Queensland waters.

Meanwhile, two crew members of a cargo ship who tested positive to COVID-19 yesterday will be taken to Townsville Hospital for treatment.

The rest of the crew have tested negative.

There are currently nine active cases across Queensland.

The three Logan women who caused a stir by allegedly lying on their border passes after a Melbourne trip before testing positive have now been released from Princess Alexandra Hospital.

They are facing court at a later date.

The Andrews government abandoned a key element of its own pandemic planning by failing to put Victoria’s Chief Health Officer, Brett Sutton, in charge of the state’s emergency response.

Under Victoria’s plan for an influenza pandemic, developed in 2015 by public health and emergency management experts who worked through the 2009 swine flu pandemic, the Chief Health Officer would assume the role of State Controller and “overall responsibility for emergency response operations”.

Premier Daniel Andrews leads Chief Health Officer Brett Sutton into the daily briefing.

Premier Daniel Andrews leads Chief Health Officer Brett Sutton into the daily briefing.Credit:Jason South

Instead, over the past few months the critical role of State Controller passed between a middle-ranking health bureaucrat, a forest firefighter, a career police woman and a State Emergency Service executive, none of whom have a medical background or experience in containing infectious disease.

These appointments were made by Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Kym Peake. Two weeks ago, at the height of Melbourne’s second wave, Ms Peake stepped into the role herself as part of an organisational overhaul of the state’s COVID-19 response.

Premier Daniel Andrews said these decisions were no reflection on Professor Sutton’s capacity to do the job of State Controller.

Click here to read the full story.

California has become the first state in the US to surpass 600,000 confirmed coronavirus cases.

As of Friday morning, local time, there were more than 603,000 recorded cases. The state also has now reported more than 11,000 deaths.

Yet despite the grim numbers, there is growing evidence that the surge in infections and fatalities that began when California reopened its economy in May is beginning to slow.

Cars queue at a drive-through coronavirus testing site at Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles last month.

Cars queue at a drive-through coronavirus testing site at Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles last month.Credit:AP

In Los Angeles County, the effective transmission rate of the coronavirus is now about 0.86 — meaning that every one infected person passes the virus to an average of 0.86 other people. Last week, the rate was at 0.91.

And statewide, an ensemble computer model known as the California COVID Assessment Tool estimates California’s overall transmission rate is about 0.96.

Hospitalisations are also falling in many regions of California. Statewide, the average number of people who were hospitalised seemed to peak in late July, when an average of nearly 7000 people were in hospitals with confirmed coronavirus infections over a seven-day period; by Wednesday, that number had fallen to 5710.

“While our gains might feel slow and our future remains fragile, our success over the last three weeks is real,” Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti said on Wednesday.

“We begin to see signs of light.”

McClatchy

Click here to read more.

Prime Minister Scott Morrison has apologised for failings in the aged care system’s response to the coronavirus pandemic but pushed back against calls for a national advisory body.

The aged care royal commission on Thursday urged the government to consider setting up a dedicated aged care national co-ordinating body.

Prime Minister Scott Morrison says some days the coronavirus gets the better of governments and systems.

Prime Minister Scott Morrison says some days the coronavirus gets the better of governments and systems.Credit:Alex Ellinghausen

Asked whether he supported the proposal, Mr Morrison on Friday said the aged care response centre the Commonwealth had established in Victoria – where 188 nursing home residents have died from COVID-19 and there are more than 1122 active cases – already mirrored that body.

In royal commission hearings about the coronavirus response this week, senior counsel assisting Peter Rozen, QC, said the federal Health Department and aged care regulator had failed to develop a plan for the sector.

Mr Morrison rejected that claim, outlining a raft of actions taken to stem the virus’ rampage through Victorian aged care facilities.

“The sad truth is, some days, we fall short. And other days, we don’t. On some days, the pandemic gets the better of us and on other days it doesn’t,” he said. “On the days that the system falls short, on the days that expectations are not met, I’m deeply sorry about that.”

Click here to read the full story.

Tangara School for Girls will not be charged for any breaches of COVID-19 protocols after a coronavirus cluster associated with the school expanded to 21 cases on Friday.

A NSW Police spokesperson said an investigation determined “no breaches of Public Health Orders have taken place”.

Police will not make any charges relating to the Tangara school cluster.

Police will not make any charges relating to the Tangara school cluster. Credit:SMH

The school community has been asked not to speak to the media but one Tangara parent anonymously reported alleged breaches of COVID-19 protocols to radio station 2GB.

The parent told host Ben Fordham on Thursday morning that weekly primary school choirs were still being held without social distancing and compulsory Mass had continued, with students and teachers taking communion.

Click here to read the full story.

A controversial Federal Government decision to assert cabinet confidentiality over discussions between the Prime Minister and state leaders in national cabinet will likely prevent Victoria’s hotel quarantine inquiry from accessing the highest level discussions about the program.

As the board of inquiry team headed by former state coroner Jennifer Coate sorts through more than 100,000 Victorian departmental documents, a constitutional fight is brewing over the Commonwealth’s position.

Scott Morrison on Friday.

Scott Morrison on Friday.Credit:Alex Ellinghausen

A spokesman for Mr Morrison confirmed on Friday that Ms Coate’s inquiry had sought a submission from the federal government and that, “The government welcomes the opportunity to provide information that it believes will be of assistance”.

But sources with knowledge of the Morrison government’s position have told The Age and The Sydney Morning Herald that the government intends to assert that the national cabinet is covered by the same confidentiality provisions that apply to all other Australian cabinet discussions.

Sources familiar with the establishment of the Victorian inquiry believe it may need to access records of discussions that took place at the May 27 national cabinet meeting in order to get a full understanding of state responsibilities for quarantine and what role the Australian Defence Force was to play.

Click here to read the full story.

NSW Health has been held responsible for serious, inexcusable and inexplicable mistakes in the Ruby Princess cruise ship debacle, but a special commission of inquiry says the failures came from decisions made by medical experts rather than political leaders.

The report by Bret Walker, SC, from the Special Commission of Inquiry into the Ruby Princess was handed to the Berejiklian government on Friday afternoon, with sweeping criticisms of NSW Health.

On March 19, 2647 Ruby Princess passengers were allowed to disembark at Circular Quay and travel home, but within 24 hours three COVID-19 tests performed aboard had returned positive.

In the weeks that followed, 712 passengers and 202 crew tested positive and 22 people died. But only 19 people in NSW and 15 people interstate were infected by those passengers.

Mr Walker’s report says NSW Health should have ensured ships were aware of the change to the definition of a “suspect case” for COVID-19 made nine days before the ship docked in Sydney.

“This would have resulted in the identification of such cases on the Ruby Princess – 101 persons fell within the suspect case definition by March 18, and 120 by the time the ship docked,” it says.

Click here to read the full story.

This week, 110 Victorians died of coronavirus, in tragedies that remained largely hidden from public view.

Healthcare workers have been among the few bearing witness to the tragedies, compounded by the heartbreaking necessities of the pandemic.

Dr John Mulder, deputy head of intensive care at Western Health, says coronavirus poses unprecedented challenges for grieving families.

Dr John Mulder, deputy head of intensive care at Western Health, says coronavirus poses unprecedented challenges for grieving families.Credit:Jason South

On an ordinary day in intensive care, there would be a huddle of family members at the bedside of a patient as their life support was switched off.

G’day all. It’s Roy Ward here and I’ll be running the live blog for this Saturday.

We will have plenty of reaction to come today in the wake of the Ruby Princess inquiry in NSW and as the Victorian inquiry into hotel quarantine faces some obstacles.

We will have all the developments throughout the day and as always please feel free to leave a comment on the blog or shoot me a tweet at @rpjward on Twitter.

I hope you all have a lovely day and enjoy the stories to come.

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Diversity pledges alone won’t change corporate workplaces – here’s what will

Dozen of companies, from Apple to Zappos, have reacted to George Floyd’s killing and the protests that followed by pledging to make their workforces more diverse.

While commendable, to me it feels a bit like deja vu. Back in 2014, a host of tech companies made similar commitments to diversify their ranks. Their latest reports – which they release annually – show they’ve made little progress.

Why have their efforts largely failed? Were they just empty promises?

As a gender diversity scholar, I explored these questions in my recent paper published in the Stanford Technology Law Review. The problem is not a lack of commitment but what social scientists call “unconscious bias.”

Big tech, little progress

Today’s efforts to promote diversity are certainly more specific than the tech industry’s vague promises in 2014.

In 2020, sports apparel maker Adidas pledged to fill at least 30% of all open positions with Black or Latino candidates. Cosmetics company Estée Lauder promised to make sure the share of Black people it employs mirrors their percentage of the U.S. population within five years. And Facebook vowed to double its number of Black and Latino employees within three years.

Companies have also committed at least US$1 billion in money and resources to fight the broader societal scourge of racism and support Black Americans and people of color more broadly.

Unfortunately, if past experience is any indication, good intentions and public pledges will not be enough to tackle the problem of the underrepresentation of women and people of color in most companies.

In 2014, Google, Facebook, Apple and other tech companies began publishing diversity reports after software engineer Tracy Chao, investor Ellen Pao and others called attention to Silicon Valley’s white male-dominated, misogynistic culture. The numbers weren’t pretty, and so one by one, they all made public commitments to diversity with promises of money, partnerships, training and mentorship programs.

Yet, half a decade later, their latest reports reveal, in embarrassing detail, how little things have changed, especially for underrepresented minorities. For example, at Apple, the share of women in tech jobs rose from 20% in 2014 to 23% in 2018, while the percentage of Black workers in those roles remained flat at 6%. Google managed to increase the share of women in such jobs to 24% in 2020 from 17% in 2014, yet only 2.4% of these tech roles are filled by Black workers, up from 1.5% in 2014. Even companies that have made more progress, such as Twitter, still have far to go to achieve meaningful representation.

I believe one of the reasons for the lack of progress is that two of their main methods, diversity training and mentoring, were flawed. Training can actually harm workplace relationships, while mentoring places the burden of changing the system on those disadvantaged by it and with the least influence over it.

More importantly, however, you can not solve the problem of diversity – no matter how much money you throw at it – without a thorough understanding of its source: faulty human decision-making.

A problem of bias

My research, which relies on the behavioral work of Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman, explains that because humans are unaware of their unconscious biases, most underestimate their impact on the decisions they make.

People tend to believe they make hiring or other business decisions based on facts or merit alone, despite loads of evidence showing that decisions tend to be subjective, inconsistent and subject to mental shortcuts, known to psychologists as heuristics.

Male-dominated industries, such as tech, finance and engineering, tend to keep hiring the same types of employees and promoting the same types of workers due to their preference for applicants who match the stereotype of who belongs in these roles – a phenomenon known as representative bias. This perpetuates the status quo that keeps men in prime positions and prevents women and underrepresented minorities from gaining a foothold.

This problem is amplified by confirmation bias and the validity illusion, which lead us to be overconfident in our predictions and decisions – despite ample research demonstrating how poorly humans are at forecasting events.

By failing to make objective decisions in the hiring process, the system just repeats itself over and over.

How AI can overcome bias

Advances in artificial intelligence, however, offer a way to overcome these biases by making hiring decisions more objective and consistent.

One way is by anonymizing the interview process.

Studies have found that simply replacing female names with male names on resumes results in improving the odds of a woman being hired by 61%. AI could help ensure an applicant isn’t culled early in the vetting process due to gender or race in a number of ways. For example, code could be written that removes certain identifying features from resumes. Or a company could use neuroscience games – which help match candidate skills and cognitive traits to the needs of jobs – as an unbiased gatekeeper.

Another roadblock is job descriptions, which can be worded in a way that results in fewer applicants from diverse backgrounds. AI is able to identify and remove biased language before the ad is even posted.

Some companies have already made strides hiring women and underrepresented minorities this way. For example, Unilever has had fantastic success improving the diversity of its workforce by employing a number of AI technologies in the recruitment process, including using a chatbot to carry on automated “conversations” with applicants. Earlier this year, the maker of Ben & Jerry’s ice cream and Vaseline jelly said it achieved perfect parity between women and men in management positions, up from 38% a decade earlier.

Accenture, which ranked number one in 2019 among more than 7,000 companies around the world on an index of diversity and inclusion, utilizes AI in its online assessments of job applicants. Women now make up 38% of its U.S. workforce, up from 36% in 2015, while African Americans rose to 9.3% from 7.6%.

Garbage in, garbage out

Of course, AI is only as good as the data and design that go into it.

We know that biases can be introduced in the choices programmers make when creating an algorithm, how information is labeled and even in the very data sets that AI relies upon. A 2018 study found that a poorly designed facial recognition algorithm had an error rate as high as 34% for identifying darker-skinned women, compared with 1% for light-skinned men.

[Deep knowledge, daily. Sign up for The Conversation’s newsletter.]

Fortunately, bias in AI can be mitigated – and remedied when problems are discovered – through its responsible use, which requires balanced and inclusive data sets, the ability to peer inside its “black box” and the recruitment of a diverse group of programmers to build these programs. Additionally, algorithmic outcomes can be monitored and audited for bias and accuracy.

But that really is the point. You can take the bias out of AI – but you can’t remove it from humans.

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Man killed in car explosion outside Kitchener courthouse, police believe IED involved

KITCHENER —

Waterloo Regional Police say a deadly car explosion in front of the Kitchener, Ont. courthouse Friday morning “appears to be the result of a suspected improvised explosive device.”

Police have confirmed that a man died in the explosion, and that he was connected to two Kitchener residences where investigators are conducting searches – on Hearthwood Drive and Grand Flats Trail.

The Peel Regional Police Explosives Disposal Unit is now assisting at those locations.

“There continues to be an elevated concern for safety, until we conclude our investigation and confirm that the residences of concern are safe and secure,” said Superintendent Eugene Fenton, with the Waterloo Regional Police. “I can’t speak to who created it, but it appears that the male who is deceased is responsible for this explosion.

The man’s name has not been released.

Police are asking the public to avoid the area.

‘THERE WAS A BODY INSIDE’

First responders were called to Frederick and Duke Streets around 10:30 a.m. after residents heard a long bang.

“I looked up at the building to see what it was and saw the flames shooting out from over here,” said Mike Sylvester.

He was working at a nearby construction site when the explosion happened.

Sylvester says some of his colleages tried to get a closer look at the vehicle.

“A couple of my coworkers ran over there and took a look inside, and there was a body inside,” he said. “It was engulfed in flames so they couldn’t do anything.”

kitchener explosion courthouse car ied

Rob Kowalczyk, who also works near where the explosion occurred, said he heard a bang and could smell smoke and plastic burning.

“Some of the guys on-site tried to help the person out but weren’t able to make it in time. They opened the door and it just fed the fire more,” he said. “Unfortunately they weren’t able to save that person.”

Police confirmed around 2 p.m. that a man had been pronounced dead at the scene.

kitchener courthouse explosion car ied

EXPLOSIVE DISPOSAL UNIT CALLED IN

There was a large police presence in the immediate area in the hours after the explosion.

Just after 2 p.m., police put out a tweet saying they were evacuating the immediate area, including Frederick Street, Scott Street, Duke Street and Weber Street.

They also said the explosive disposal unit was also being brought in as a precautionary measure.

‘CARS DON’T NORMALLY BLOW UP’

Former OPP Commissioner and CTV News Public Safety Analyst Chris Lewis said the explosive disposal unit is called in whenever there’s a serious safety concern.

“Where there’s known to be explosives, or suspected to be, or in some cases they just don’t really know, so they err on the side of caution, they bring those tools in,” he said.

Lewis said the unit would look for more explosives, especially in a situation where it’s not clear why the explosion occurred.

“A car parked on a street, that normally doesn’t blow up unless it’s an intentional thing,” he said.

Lewis said the unit is specifically trained for explosive disposal. They typically send in a robot with a camera to evaluate the scene before deciding how best to handle the situation.

Lewis added the unit would also examine why an explosion occurred and look for any evidence, including components of a device, fingerprints or DNA.

In order to carry out their jobs safely, Lewis said police would evacuate an area and create a perimeter to prevent any injuries should an explosion occur.

He added that explosive disposal units have become even more important in a “counterterrorism” world.

“When I joined policing in the 70s, terrorists were something in some other world,” Lewis said. “But in that whole counterterrorism world, there’s been more and more training around explosive devices.”

The investigation is ongoing. Anyone who has information about the incident is asked to contact police.

— With reporting from Stephanie Villella

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It’s ‘comma-la’: Insisting on mispronouncing Kamala Harris’s name is racist

Vice-presidential candidate Kamala Harris pronounces her name “comma-la,” but many of her fellow Americans — including Fox News host Tucker Carlson — mispronounce it as “kuh-MAH-luh” or “kuh-MALL-uh.”

When called out about this on his TV show, Carlson snubbed defensively: “So I’m disrespecting her by mispronouncing her name unintentionally? … kuh-MAH-luh Harris or KAM-uh-luh Harris or whatever.”

In this instance, Carlson personifies “Whatever People,” one of several types of name bunglers that are called out in an MTV video.

“If you do this, you are a bad person,” says Maritza Montañez, who describes the daily distortions of her own name as “just exhausting.” Mamoudou N’Diaye, another performer in the video, explains: “People mispronounce my name seven days a week.… If you don’t say my name correctly, it’s basically like saying, I don’t care about you as a person.”

How to pronounce Kamala.

Mispronunciation as microaggression

In his 2010 book Microaggressions in Everyday Life, psychologist Derald Wing Sue argues that superficially trivial incidents like “the boss forgetting or mispronouncing your name” accumulate, and as such, they are “equally disruptive and harmful” as “large, overt racial or gender gaffes and overt obvious acts of discrimination.”

Such microaggressions are said to take a particular toll on members of minority groups. In Rita Kohli and Daniel Solórzano’s study of minority students across the United States, “many participants shared that the issues they experienced with their names in school caused them a great deal of anxiety, shame or feelings of ‘othering’.” For example, they report an incident in which a vice-principal bungled a Chinese American’s name before laughing at his own mistake.

He butchered her name mercilessly, shaking his head and laughing as others laughed along… It is likely he did not intend malice.… But because this student had endured years of subtle racial slights, her cumulative experience with the fumbling of her name led her to feel humiliated by his action and see her culture as inferior.

The authors conclude that name blunders are “insults/assaults,” and that, “to prevent internalized racism, teachers must own this issue regardless of the cause of a mispronunciation.”

Freudian slips?

Sigmund Freud infamously argued that mistakes are deliberate, in that each facilitates “an unconscious intention.” He and his colleagues attached special significance to proper names being misspoken, misremembered, misheard, misread or misspelled. All such mishaps were psychoanalyzed as performed below the level of awareness, as subtle slights — personal names being personal, after all.

Neurologist and psychoanalyst Ernest Jones concluded that:

the general inability to bear other people’s names in mind is an expression of an excessively high estimation of the importance of one’s own name and of oneself in general, with a corresponding indifference to, or depreciation of, other people.

“No alteration is too slight to have a meaning,” Jones insisted, citing the case of a foreign visitor who mistakenly referred to psychologist Edward Titchener as “Kitchener.” According to Jones, this slip originated in the visitor’s contempt for Titchener and his expertise:

A few minutes before, while talking about experimental psychologists in general, he had allowed himself to make the scurrilous remark that in his opinion they should be called the pantry-cooks of psychology, on account of their menial field of work; the passage from ‘cook’ to ‘kitchen’ is obvious.

Titchener, whom Freud considered a leading adversary, advocated instead for a more scientific approach to introspection and mental processes, using experimental procedures, measurements, and observations in a controlled laboratory. Titchener also warned against the “stimulus error” — failing to tease apart objective experiences from how we think, know or judge them to be.

Titchener’s century-old concerns are echoed in psychologist Scott Lilienfeld’s arguments that microaggression research falls short of scientific rigor. Racial microaggressions are subtle acts of racism and aggression, which certainly occur, but Lilienfeld shows that their valid application to individual situations is fraught.

For example, Carlson’s “whatever” was decidedly dismissive and arguably aggressive (if defensive), but it was anything but subtle. Was it also racist? Critical race theorists like Solórzano et al. would probably say so. As Robin DiAngelo puts it: “The question is not ‘did racism take place?’ but rather ‘how did racism manifest in that situation?’”

A portrait of Fox News host Tucker Carlson posing on the set of this TV show
Fox News host Tucker Carlson mispronounced Kamala Harris’s name and then, when called out on air about it, replied: ‘Whatever.’ (AP Photo/Richard Drew)

Response to foreign words

As a clinical psychologist, Lilienfeld describes this way of thinking as dangerous. He says that ill intent exists to be sure, but the mental health of a racialized person is not well served by assuming the worst from most if not all awkward statements or flubs they encounter in life. Lilienfeld also worries that a racialized person who feels depressed or oppressed, perhaps due to actual racial microaggressions, is likely to perceive more racial microaggressions and thereby get trapped in a vicious cycle of negative emotions.

This is not to say that microaggressions only exist in perceivers’ minds. For instance, Carlson’s mispronunciation of Kamala is a textbook example of a linguistic process called “hyperforeignization.” Roughly, speakers go out of their way to refit foreign-looking words with pseudo-foreign speech sounds and sound patterns. This process is so strong that the Japanese had to rebrand Matsuda (“MAT-soo-da”) and Dattosun (“DAT-toh-soon”) as Mazda and Datsun, respectively, in order to avoid the American hyperforeignisms “maht-SOO-duh” and “dah-TOH-suhn.”

Hyperforeignisms are literally “othering,” and yet, as unconscious phenomena, the intention behind them cannot be reliably established as aggressive or racist without considering independent observations and factors. For example, we also know that “male and female English names show systematic differences in sound pattern: female names are far more likely to have unstressed initial syllables.” So Carlson’s “kuh-MAH-luh” could also be understood as “hyperfeminization.” At any rate, his insistence on mispronouncing Kamala and his dismissive “whatever” confirmed the disrespect he was accused of.

This is precisely what makes racial microaggressions unsettling — they’re indeterminate by definition. As social psychologist Dorraine Green describes it: “There’s uncertainty about whether or not your experience was due to your race, for example, or due to something unrelated, such as the other person being in a bad mood or having a bad day.… That uncertainty is distressing.”

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Trump visits brother, Robert, at New York hospital

WASHINGTON — U.S. President Donald Trump on Friday paid a visit to his younger brother, Robert Trump, at the New York hospital where he has been hospitalized.

The president entered New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center in Manhattan wearing a face mask on Friday afternoon.

“I hope he’s okay,”Trump said shortly before arriving at the hospital. “He’s having a tough time.” The hospital visit came ahead of Trump’s scheduled weekend trip to his private golf club in Bedminster, New Jersey.

The White House did not immediately release details about why Robert Trump, who is 72, had been hospitalized, but officials said that he was seriously ill.

“I have a wonderful brother. We’ve had a great relationship for a long time, from day one,” Trump told reporters before departing for New York. “He’s in the hospital right now, and hopefully he’ll be all right.”

Robert Trump, one of the president’s four siblings, recently filed a lawsuit on behalf of the Trump family seeking to stop publication of a tell-all book by the president’s niece Mary titled “Too Much and Never Enough.” She is the daughter of the eldest Trump sibling, Fred Trump Jr., who struggled with alcoholism and died in 1981 at the age of 43

The president has said that Mary Trump’s book was a violation of a nondisclosure agreement she signed in connection to a financial settlement she received from the Trump family.

In her book, Mary Trump claimed that no family members joined Fred Jr., who was known as Freddy, at the hospital on the night he died, adding that Donald Trump went to the movies with another sibling instead.

Robert Trump had previously worked for his older brother as a top executive at the Trump Organization. Once a regular bold face name in Manhattan’s social pages, he has kept a lower profile in recent years. He married his longtime girlfriend, Ann Marie Pallan, in March, according to the New York Post. He divorced his first wife, Blaine Trump, more than a decade ago.

In a 2016 interview with the New York Post, he described himself as a big supporter of his brother’s run for the White House.

“I support Donald one thousand per cent,” Robert Trump said.

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Why are more small boats crossing the English Channel – and why are border forces struggling to stop them?

The number of migrants crossing the English Channel in small boats has increased significantly – up to 4,343 this year compared with 857 in the same period last year. The number of lurid headlines calling for action has also increased significantly but the issue is not always well understood. Calls to strengthen UK border security at sea often misapprehend the tensions and difficulties involved.

There is a reason more boats are suddenly arriving now. It is a direct consequence of a series of disruptions to the established routes, both legal and illegal, by which refugees and asylum seekers have sought to enter the UK. Legal options have been curtailed with the reported suspension of the refugee resettlement scheme due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Clandestine routes have also been disrupted by pandemic restrictions, with less freight being moved between France and the UK and fewer flights taking place.

For migrants fleeing often extreme insecurity or deprivation, getting to the UK offers a chance of security. When safer routes have closed or become more difficult, small boats have become the most viable option for desperate people. They offer a solution of sorts, albeit one that is fraught with danger.

A testing time for maritime security

The crossings highlight the different problems at play in UK maritime security and the difficult and sometimes contradictory demands these place on UK government agencies.

The first of these is humanitarian. The English Channel is one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world, and vulnerable people attempting to cross it in small and overcrowded boats do so at considerable risk to their lives.

The UK has both moral and legal obligations to protect the safety of lives at sea in its extensive maritime Search and Rescue Zone. Such tasks are the responsibility – indeed the whole mandate – of the Maritime and Coastguard Agency and Royal National Lifeboat Association (RNLI) among others.

The second is the need to patrol the UK’s borders – a politically charged issue in recent years. The arrival of these small boats places fresh strains on cash strapped local authorities responsible for looking after the people who come in on them at a time when demands on their resources are already high. Border policing at sea is the responsibility of UK Border Force in collaboration with local police forces and other agencies.

The third pressure is organised crime. While migrants themselves are the most visible people in this situation, their movements are often facilitated by organised criminal groups in the UK, Belgium and France. These groups provide the boats and instructions to the migrants. In places like the Mediterranean, the networks smuggling people also smuggle illicit goods. There is concern this could also happen in this case.

So any maritime security enforcement that targets migrants also needs to be backed up by investigations into the criminal networks that enable these movements. The National Crime Agency leads Project INVIGOR to tackle this problem.

Priti Patel sits in a police boat.
Home Secretary Priti Patel joins a Channel patrol. EPA/Gareth Fuller

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Virus won’t wait for our leaders to stop playing word games


On June 15, at the peak of Australia’s complacency on the coronavirus, Scott Morrison took a gentle shot at his New Zealand counterpart Jacinda Ardern. He did not mention her by name, but he wanted a share of the global adulation she was receiving at the time.

Australia, he explained, had “the balance right between our health and our economic objectives”.

“Whereas other countries imposed strict lockdowns, we have been able to keep large sectors of our economy open and functioning, including construction, manufacturing, agriculture mining, as well as large parts of the retail sector,” the Prime Minister told the Committee for Economic Development of Australia.

Scott Morrison was eager to spruik Australia's approach to tackling coronavirus even as the second wave begining.

Scott Morrison was eager to spruik Australia’s approach to tackling coronavirus even as the second wave begining.Credit:SMH

That boast seemed easy enough to make, even allowing for the risk of a second wave. The death rate in each country was just four people for every million. Australia had achieved this “enviable health outcome” with stage three restrictions; one notch below New Zealand’s.

But the virus was already spreading unchecked through Melbourne, and would soon force the city into a lockdown ever harsher than New Zealand’s. As Richard Baker revealed in this newspaper on Friday, patient zero in the Victorian outbreak – a night duty manager at one of Melbourne’s busiest quarantine hotels – had tested positive for the coronavirus on May 26, more than a fortnight before Morrison claimed to have a world-class model.

Now our death rate is more than three times New Zealand’s at 15 people per million and the shutdown of the Victorian economy is set to prolong the national recession. Victoria already lost almost 200,000 jobs, or 5 per cent of its workforce, in the first lockdown between March and May. The state government now expects 325,000 jobs to be lost in total by September.

But it could have been much worse. As the wrecking ball of recrimination continues to swing between the Commonwealth and Victorian governments, it is worth remembering that Australia’s initial response to the pandemic in March was more stringent than Morrison would have preferred.

He wanted to keep schools open and allow the free movement of Australians across state and territory borders. The premiers, led by Daniel Andrews and Gladys Berejiklian, insisted on stage three restrictions. But the Victorian and NSW leaders did not have it all their own way. They were on Morrison’s side in the argument over state borders, but could not prevent their fellow premiers from isolating their respective states.

Australia’s federation provides a check on Commonwealth and big state power that has no equivalent in New Zealand. The six states and two territories are responsible for health, education and policing – the critical levers in managing a pandemic once the national border is shut to foreign arrivals. Ardern had all those powers in her office. Morrison, governing on his own, may well have lost control of the first wave.

Australia’s compromise model achieved suppression of the virus by April, only to have it return with a vengeance within two months. New Zealand had eliminated the virus for just over 100 days before it flared again this week. Neither country can brag now.

The Victorian outbreak has revealed the inherent fragility of Australian identity. The old colonial rivalries, Melbourne versus Sydney; Queensland versus NSW, have always been there. But the culture had safely boiled them down in the 21st century to these trivial arguments: is Melbourne a more liveable city than Sydney, and who will win the rugby league state of origin?

But a more substantial shift was underway, drawing the people of the two cities closer together, and separating them from Queensland, and the rest of the Australia. The clearest expression of this trend has been at the ballot box. The past two federal elections have seen firm Labor majorities in Sydney and Melbourne cancelled by coalition supermajorities in Queensland.

These relatively new cosmopolitan bonds have been shattered by the Victorian outbreak. Andrews would have expected every other state and territory to close their borders again. But it has escalated to the point where states are treating each other with a poll-driven callousness usually associated with asylum seekers. NSW deserves special mention. The decision to leave about 100 Canberrans stranded at the Victorian border for a week before they were allowed to return home ranks as one of the most childish in the health crisis so far. These people had the necessary permits to travel, but someone in the NSW government thought they should head back to Melbourne and hop on a plane to Canberra instead. It took a week of negotiation between the ACT and NSW to bring NSW to its senses and let these people drive home under escort.

It has been exhausting to watch leaders buck pass. Each significant problem to date has involved shared responsibility between the Commonwealth and one of the most populous states. The Ruby Princess set the tone in March. Neither Morrison nor Berejiklian thought it was their job to stop that boat. Back then, Morrison’s office was involved in a whispering campaign against the NSW Premier, which extended from the Ruby Princess to her conduct in early meetings of the national cabinet. The mobile has been on the other ear for some weeks now, pushing the line that the Victorian Premier is solely to blame for the second wave of infections and deaths because he had rejected the Commonwealth’s offers of defence assistance to secure the hotel quarantine system. Conveniently that argument absolves the Commonwealth for the catastrophe in aged care – the one area of health policy it is directly responsible for.

The cold war threatened to explode into open conflict on Tuesday when federal defence minister Linda Reynolds issued a statement directly contradicting Andrews. He had told a Victorian parliamentary inquiry: “I don’t believe ADF support was on offer.” She replied with a detailed list of offers.

Victoria’s emergency manager commissioner Andrew Crisp clarified the record on Andrews’ behalf the following day. Crisp said he had spoken to Australian Defence Forces in later March. “During these discussions I did not seek nor did representatives of the ADF offer assistance as part of the hotel quarantine program,” he said in a statement. “Subsequent communications with the ADF on the 12th and 15th of April did not relate to ADF assistance as part of the program.”

It was an extraordinary back and forth. Morrison and Andrews are well aware of the game each man is playing. They maintain a veneer of civility while each side probes for a weakness through proxies.
Andrews has developed a stock answer whenever a federal minister takes a shot at him. He doesn’t care what the minister thinks because he has a direct line to the Prime Minister.

Morrison, for his part, cannot afford to provoke Andrews into a direct personal reprisal. He knows, as well as Andrews does, that a federal election will occur before the next state election. Morrison could lose power if there is a big swing in Victoria. Berejiklian coincidentally is in the same position. She will also face the voters after Morrison.

All three will say they are not interested in politics at the moment, but no one really believes that. The buck passing reeks of politics as it was conducted in 2019, when scrutiny was taken as an affront and days, even weeks were wasted in word games.

The virus has no interest in which leader can stonewall the best. It will continue to hunt out gaps in our safety net while our leaders play catch up with their past mistakes.

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Trump gives credence to false, racist Kamala Harris conspiracy

WASHINGTON — U.S. President Donald Trump on Thursday gave credence to a false and racist conspiracy theory about Kamala Harris’ eligibility to be vice-president, fuelling an online misinformation campaign that parallels the one he used to power his rise into politics.

Asked about the matter at the White House, Trump told reporters he had “heard” rumours that Harris, a Black woman and U.S.-born citizen whose parents were immigrants, does not meet the requirement to serve in the White House. The president said he considered the rumours “very serious.”

The conspiracy theory is false. Harris, who was tapped this week by Joe Biden to serve as his running mate on the Democratic ticket, was born in Oakland, California, and is eligible for both the vice presidency and presidency under the constitutional requirements. The question is not even considered complex, according to constitution lawyers.

“Full stop, end of story, period, exclamation point,” said Jessica Levinson, a professor at Loyola Law School.

Trump built his political career on questioning a political opponent’s legitimacy. He was a high-profile force behind the so-called “birther movement” — the lie that questioned whether President Barack Obama, the nation’s first Black president, was eligible to serve. Only after mounting pressure during his 2016 campaign did Trump disavow the claims.

Trump’s comments landed in a blizzard of other untrue, racist or sexist claims unleashed across social media and conservative websites after Biden picked Harris, the first Black woman and the first Asian American woman on a major party ticket. The misinformation campaign is built on falsehoods that have been circulating less noticeably for months, propelled by Trump supporters, and now the president himself.

“I have no idea if that’s right,” said Trump, who said he had read a column on the subject earlier Thursday. “I would have thought, I would have assumed, that the Democrats would have checked that out before she gets chosen to run for vice-president.”

Trump made the comments in answer to a reporter’s question and appeared to be referencing an op-ed written by John Eastman, a conservative attorney who argues that the U.S. Constitution doesn’t grant birthright citizenship. Eastman sowed doubt about Harris’ eligibility based on her parents’ immigration status. Harris’ mother was born in India and her father was born in Jamaica.

But constitutional law experts say Harris’ parents are beside the point. The 14th Amendment grants citizenship to all people born in the U.S. and Article II Section 1 of the Constitution says that to be eligible for the vice presidency and presidency a candidate must be natural-born U.S. citizen, at least 35, and a resident of the United States for a minimum of 14 years.

“No, there’s no question about it,” said Christopher Kelley, a political science professor at Miami University in Ohio. “It’s been recognized since the people drafted it back in the 39th Congress that (the 14th) amendment would cover people not just born to American citizens but born on American soil.”

The president’s reelection campaign’s senior lawyer, Jenna Ellis, shared the controversial Eastman column on Thursday morning, hours before Trump was asked about it at a White House news conference. Trump noted that the column was written by a “very highly qualified and very talented lawyer.”

After Trump’s remarks, Republican National Committee spokesman Michael Ahrens said the national party has no plans to challenge Harris’ eligibility for the Democratic ticket.

Eastman, the former dean of Chapman University’s Fowler School of Law, where he is a professor, is also a senior fellow at the conservative Claremont Institute. According to his bio on the institute’s website, he also served as a law clerk to Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas.

He also ran in the Republican primary to serve as California’s attorney general in 2010. Eastman was defeated by a candidate who went on to lose to Harris.

Newsweek, which published the controversial Eastman op-ed questioning Harris’ birthright qualification, defended the piece, arguing that Eastman “was focusing on a long-standing, somewhat arcane legal debate” about the 14th Amendment and not trying to “ignite a racist conspiracy theory around Kamala Harris’ candidacy.”

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Major quantum computational breakthrough is shaking up physics and maths

MIP* = RE is not a typo. It is a groundbreaking discovery and the catchy title of a recent paper in the field of quantum complexity theory. Complexity theory is a zoo of “complexity classes” – collections of computational problems – of which MIP* and RE are but two.

The 165-page paper shows that these two classes are the same. That may seem like an insignificant detail in an abstract theory without any real-world application. But physicists and mathematicians are flocking to visit the zoo, even though they probably don’t understand it all. Because it turns out the discovery has astonishing consequences for their own disciplines.

In 1936, Alan Turing showed that the Halting Problem – algorithmically deciding whether a computer program halts or loops forever – cannot be solved. Modern computer science was born. Its success made the impression that soon all practical problems would yield to the tremendous power of the computer.

But it soon became apparent that, while some problems can be solved algorithmically, the actual computation will last long after our Sun will have engulfed the computer performing the computation. Figuring out how to solve a problem algorithmically was not enough. It was vital to classify solutions by efficiency. Complexity theory classifies problems according to how hard it is to solve them. The hardness of a problem is measured in terms of how long the computation lasts.

RE stands for problems that can be solved by a computer. It is the zoo. Let’s have a look at some subclasses.

The class P consists of problems which a known algorithm can solve quickly (technically, in polynomial time). For instance, multiplying two numbers belongs to P since long multiplication is an efficient algorithm to solve the problem. The problem of finding the prime factors of a number is not known to be in P; the problem can certainly be solved by a computer but no known algorithm can do so efficiently. A related problem, deciding if a given number is a prime, was in similar limbo until 2004 when an efficient algorithm showed that this problem is in P.

Another complexity class is NP. Imagine a maze. “Is there a way out of this maze?” is a yes/no question. If the answer is yes, then there is a simple way to convince us: simply give us the directions, we’ll follow them, and we’ll find the exit. If the answer is no, however, we’d have to traverse the entire maze without ever finding a way out to be convinced.

Such yes/no problems for which, if the answer is yes, we can efficiently demonstrate that, belong to NP. Any solution to a problem serves to convince us of the answer, and so P is contained in NP. Surprisingly, a million dollar question is whether P=NP. Nobody knows.

Trust in machines

The classes described so far represent problems faced by a normal computer. But computers are fundamentally changing – quantum computers are being developed. But if a new type of computer comes along and claims to solve one of our problems, how can we trust it is correct?

Picture of computer code.
Complexity science helps explain what problems a computer can solve. Phatcharapon/Shutterstock

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